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Run C-Chain Offline Pruning


Offline Pruning is ported from go-ethereum to reduce the amount of disk space taken up by the TrieDB (storage for the Merkle Forest).

Offline pruning creates a bloom filter and adds all trie nodes in the active state to the bloom filter to mark the data as protected. This ensures that any part of the active state will not be removed during offline pruning.

After generating the bloom filter, offline pruning iterates over the database and searches for trie nodes that are safe to be removed from disk.

A bloom filter is a probabilistic data structure that reports whether an item is definitely not in a set or possibly in a set. Therefore, for each key we iterate, we check if it is in the bloom filter. If the key is definitely not in the bloom filter, then it is not in the active state and we can safely delete it. If the key is possibly in the set, then we skip over it to ensure we do not delete any active state.

During iteration, the underlying database (leveldb) writes deletion markers, causing a temporary increase in disk usage.

After iterating over the database and deleting any old trie nodes that it can, offline pruning then runs compaction to minimize the DB size after the potentially large number of delete operations.

Finding the C-Chain Config File

In order to enable offline pruning, you need to update the C-Chain config file to include the parameters offline-pruning-enabled and offline-pruning-data-directory.

The default location of the C-Chain config file is ~/.metalgo/configs/chains/C/config.json. Please note that by default, this file does not exist. You would need to create it manually. You can update the directory for chain configs by passing in the directory of your choice via the CLI arg: chain-config-dir. See this for more info. For example, if you start your node with:

./build/metalgo --chain-config-dir=/home/ubuntu/chain-configs

the chain config directory will be updated to /home/ubuntu/chain-configs and the corresponding C-Chain config file will be: /home/ubuntu/chain-configs/C/config.json.

Running Offline Pruning

In order to enable offline pruning, update the C-Chain config file to include the following parameters:

"offline-pruning-enabled": true,
"offline-pruning-data-directory": "/home/ubuntu/offline-pruning"

This will set /home/ubuntu/offline-pruning as the directory to be used by the offline pruner. Offline pruning will store the bloom filter in this location, so you must ensure that the path exists.

Now that the C-Chain config file has been updated, you can start your node with the command (no CLI args are necessary if using the default chain config directory):


Once MetalGo starts the C-Chain, you can expect to see update logs from the offline pruner:

INFO [02-09|00:20:15.625] Iterating state snapshot                 accounts=297,231 slots=6,669,708 elapsed=16.001s eta=1m29.03s
INFO [02-09|00:20:23.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=401,907 slots=10,698,094 elapsed=24.001s eta=1m32.522s
INFO [02-09|00:20:31.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=606,544 slots=13,891,948 elapsed=32.002s eta=1m10.927s
INFO [02-09|00:20:39.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=760,948 slots=18,025,523 elapsed=40.002s eta=1m2.603s
INFO [02-09|00:20:47.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=886,583 slots=21,769,199 elapsed=48.002s eta=1m8.834s
INFO [02-09|00:20:55.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,046,295 slots=26,120,100 elapsed=56.002s eta=57.401s
INFO [02-09|00:21:03.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,229,257 slots=30,241,391 elapsed=1m4.002s eta=47.674s
INFO [02-09|00:21:11.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,344,091 slots=34,128,835 elapsed=1m12.002s eta=45.185s
INFO [02-09|00:21:19.626] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,538,009 slots=37,791,218 elapsed=1m20.002s eta=34.59s
INFO [02-09|00:21:27.627] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,729,564 slots=41,694,303 elapsed=1m28.002s eta=25.006s
INFO [02-09|00:21:35.627] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,847,617 slots=45,646,011 elapsed=1m36.003s eta=20.052s
INFO [02-09|00:21:43.627] Iterating state snapshot accounts=1,950,875 slots=48,832,722 elapsed=1m44.003s eta=9.299s
INFO [02-09|00:21:47.342] Iterated snapshot accounts=1,950,875 slots=49,667,870 elapsed=1m47.718s
INFO [02-09|00:21:47.351] Writing state bloom to disk name=/home/ubuntu/offline-pruning/
INFO [02-09|00:23:04.421] State bloom filter committed name=/home/ubuntu/offline-pruning/

The bloom filter should be populated and committed to disk after about 5 minutes. At this point, if the node shuts down, it will resume the offline pruning session when it restarts (note: this operation cannot be cancelled).

In order to ensure that users do not mistakenly leave offline pruning enabled for the long term (which could result in an hour of downtime on each restart), we have added a manual protection which requires that after an offline pruning session, the node must be started with offline pruning disabled at least once before it will start with offline pruning enabled agin. Therefore, once the bloom filter has been committed to disk, you should update the C-Chain config file to include the following parameters:

"offline-pruning-enabled": false,
"offline-pruning-data-directory": "/home/ubuntu/offline-pruning"

It is important to keep the same data directory in the config file, so that the node knows where to look for the bloom filter on a restart if offline pruning has not finished.

Now if your node restarts, it will be marked as having correctly disabled offline pruning after the run and be allowed to resume normal operation once offline pruning has finished running.

You will see progress logs throughout the offline pruning run which will indicate the session's progress:

INFO [02-09|00:31:51.920] Pruning state data                       nodes=40,116,759 size=10.08GiB  elapsed=8m47.499s eta=12m50.961s
INFO [02-09|00:31:59.921] Pruning state data nodes=41,659,059 size=10.47GiB elapsed=8m55.499s eta=12m13.822s
INFO [02-09|00:32:07.921] Pruning state data nodes=41,687,047 size=10.48GiB elapsed=9m3.499s eta=12m23.915s
INFO [02-09|00:32:15.921] Pruning state data nodes=41,715,823 size=10.48GiB elapsed=9m11.499s eta=12m33.965s
INFO [02-09|00:32:23.921] Pruning state data nodes=41,744,167 size=10.49GiB elapsed=9m19.500s eta=12m44.004s
INFO [02-09|00:32:31.921] Pruning state data nodes=41,772,613 size=10.50GiB elapsed=9m27.500s eta=12m54.01s
INFO [02-09|00:32:39.921] Pruning state data nodes=41,801,267 size=10.50GiB elapsed=9m35.500s eta=13m3.992s
INFO [02-09|00:32:47.922] Pruning state data nodes=41,829,714 size=10.51GiB elapsed=9m43.500s eta=13m13.951s
INFO [02-09|00:32:55.922] Pruning state data nodes=41,858,400 size=10.52GiB elapsed=9m51.501s eta=13m23.885s
INFO [02-09|00:33:03.923] Pruning state data nodes=41,887,131 size=10.53GiB elapsed=9m59.501s eta=13m33.79s
INFO [02-09|00:33:11.923] Pruning state data nodes=41,915,583 size=10.53GiB elapsed=10m7.502s eta=13m43.678s
INFO [02-09|00:33:19.924] Pruning state data nodes=41,943,891 size=10.54GiB elapsed=10m15.502s eta=13m53.551s
INFO [02-09|00:33:27.924] Pruning state data nodes=41,972,281 size=10.55GiB elapsed=10m23.502s eta=14m3.389s
INFO [02-09|00:33:35.924] Pruning state data nodes=42,001,414 size=10.55GiB elapsed=10m31.503s eta=14m13.192s
INFO [02-09|00:33:43.925] Pruning state data nodes=42,029,987 size=10.56GiB elapsed=10m39.504s eta=14m22.976s
INFO [02-09|00:33:51.925] Pruning state data nodes=42,777,042 size=10.75GiB elapsed=10m47.504s eta=14m7.245s
INFO [02-09|00:34:00.950] Pruning state data nodes=42,865,413 size=10.77GiB elapsed=10m56.529s eta=14m15.927s
INFO [02-09|00:34:08.956] Pruning state data nodes=42,918,719 size=10.79GiB elapsed=11m4.534s eta=14m24.453s
INFO [02-09|00:34:22.816] Pruning state data nodes=42,952,925 size=10.79GiB elapsed=11m18.394s eta=14m41.243s
INFO [02-09|00:34:30.818] Pruning state data nodes=42,998,715 size=10.81GiB elapsed=11m26.397s eta=14m49.961s
INFO [02-09|00:34:38.828] Pruning state data nodes=43,046,476 size=10.82GiB elapsed=11m34.407s eta=14m58.572s
INFO [02-09|00:34:46.893] Pruning state data nodes=43,107,656 size=10.83GiB elapsed=11m42.472s eta=15m6.729s
INFO [02-09|00:34:55.038] Pruning state data nodes=43,168,834 size=10.85GiB elapsed=11m50.616s eta=15m14.934s
INFO [02-09|00:35:03.039] Pruning state data nodes=43,446,900 size=10.92GiB elapsed=11m58.618s eta=15m14.705s

When the node completes, it will emit the following log and resume normal operation:

INFO [02-09|00:42:16.009] Pruning state data                       nodes=93,649,812 size=23.53GiB  elapsed=19m11.588s eta=1m2.658s
INFO [02-09|00:42:24.009] Pruning state data nodes=95,045,956 size=23.89GiB elapsed=19m19.588s eta=45.149s
INFO [02-09|00:42:32.009] Pruning state data nodes=96,429,410 size=24.23GiB elapsed=19m27.588s eta=28.041s
INFO [02-09|00:42:40.009] Pruning state data nodes=97,811,804 size=24.58GiB elapsed=19m35.588s eta=11.204s
INFO [02-09|00:42:45.359] Pruned state data nodes=98,744,430 size=24.82GiB elapsed=19m40.938s
INFO [02-09|00:42:45.360] Compacting database range=0x00-0x10 elapsed="2.157µs"
INFO [02-09|00:43:12.311] Compacting database range=0x10-0x20 elapsed=26.951s
INFO [02-09|00:43:38.763] Compacting database range=0x20-0x30 elapsed=53.402s
INFO [02-09|00:44:04.847] Compacting database range=0x30-0x40 elapsed=1m19.486s
INFO [02-09|00:44:31.194] Compacting database range=0x40-0x50 elapsed=1m45.834s
INFO [02-09|00:45:31.580] Compacting database range=0x50-0x60 elapsed=2m46.220s
INFO [02-09|00:45:58.465] Compacting database range=0x60-0x70 elapsed=3m13.104s
INFO [02-09|00:51:17.593] Compacting database range=0x70-0x80 elapsed=8m32.233s
INFO [02-09|00:56:19.679] Compacting database range=0x80-0x90 elapsed=13m34.319s
INFO [02-09|00:56:46.011] Compacting database range=0x90-0xa0 elapsed=14m0.651s
INFO [02-09|00:57:12.370] Compacting database range=0xa0-0xb0 elapsed=14m27.010s
INFO [02-09|00:57:38.600] Compacting database range=0xb0-0xc0 elapsed=14m53.239s
INFO [02-09|00:58:06.311] Compacting database range=0xc0-0xd0 elapsed=15m20.951s
INFO [02-09|00:58:35.484] Compacting database range=0xd0-0xe0 elapsed=15m50.123s
INFO [02-09|00:59:05.449] Compacting database range=0xe0-0xf0 elapsed=16m20.089s
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.365] Compacting database range=0xf0- elapsed=16m49.005s
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.367] Database compaction finished elapsed=16m49.006s
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.367] State pruning successful pruned=24.82GiB elapsed=39m34.749s
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.367] Completed offline pruning. Re-initializing blockchain.
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.387] Loaded most recent local header number=10,671,401 hash=b52d0a..7bd166 age=40m29s
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.387] Loaded most recent local full block number=10,671,401 hash=b52d0a..7bd166 age=40m29s
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.387] Initializing snapshots async=true
DEBUG[02-09|00:59:34.390] Reinjecting stale transactions count=0
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.395] Transaction pool price threshold updated price=470,000,000,000
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.396] Transaction pool price threshold updated price=225,000,000,000
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.396] Transaction pool price threshold updated price=0
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.396] lastAccepted = 0xb52d0a1302e4055b487c3a0243106b5e13a915c6e178da9f8491cebf017bd166
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <C Chain> snow/engine/snowman/transitive.go#67: initializing consensus engine
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <C Chain> snow/engine/snowman/bootstrap/bootstrapper.go#220: Starting bootstrap...
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] chains/manager.go#246: creating chain:
ID: 2oYMBNV4eNHyqk2fjjV5nVQLDbtmNJzq5s3qs3Lo6ftnC6FByM
INFO [02-09|00:59:34.425] Enabled APIs: eth, eth-filter, net, web3, internal-eth, internal-blockchain, internal-transaction, avax
DEBUG[02-09|00:59:34.425] Allowed origin(s) for WS RPC interface [*]
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] api/server/server.go#203: adding route /ext/bc/2q9e4r6Mu3U68nU1fYjgbR6JvwrRx36CohpAX5UQxse55x1Q5/avax
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] api/server/server.go#203: adding route /ext/bc/2q9e4r6Mu3U68nU1fYjgbR6JvwrRx36CohpAX5UQxse55x1Q5/rpc
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] api/server/server.go#203: adding route /ext/bc/2q9e4r6Mu3U68nU1fYjgbR6JvwrRx36CohpAX5UQxse55x1Q5/ws
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <X Chain> vms/avm/vm.go#437: Fee payments are using Asset with Alias: METAL, AssetID: FvwEAhmxKfeiG8SnEvq42hc6whRyY3EFYAvebMqDNDGCgxN5Z
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <X Chain> vms/avm/vm.go#229: address transaction indexing is disabled
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <X Chain> snow/engine/avalanche/transitive.go#71: initializing consensus engine
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <X Chain> snow/engine/avalanche/bootstrap/bootstrapper.go#258: Starting bootstrap...
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] api/server/server.go#203: adding route /ext/bc/2oYMBNV4eNHyqk2fjjV5nVQLDbtmNJzq5s3qs3Lo6ftnC6FByM
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <P Chain> snow/engine/snowman/bootstrap/bootstrapper.go#445: waiting for the remaining chains in this subnet to finish syncing
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] api/server/server.go#203: adding route /ext/bc/2oYMBNV4eNHyqk2fjjV5nVQLDbtmNJzq5s3qs3Lo6ftnC6FByM/wallet
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] api/server/server.go#203: adding route /ext/bc/2oYMBNV4eNHyqk2fjjV5nVQLDbtmNJzq5s3qs3Lo6ftnC6FByM/events
INFO [02-09|00:59:34] <P Chain> snow/engine/common/bootstrapper.go#235: Bootstrapping started syncing with 1 vertices in the accepted frontier
INFO [02-09|00:59:46] <X Chain> snow/engine/common/bootstrapper.go#235: Bootstrapping started syncing with 2 vertices in the accepted frontier
INFO [02-09|00:59:49] <C Chain> snow/engine/common/bootstrapper.go#235: Bootstrapping started syncing with 1 vertices in the accepted frontier
INFO [02-09|00:59:49] <X Chain> snow/engine/avalanche/bootstrap/bootstrapper.go#473: bootstrapping fetched 55 vertices. Executing transaction state transitions...
INFO [02-09|00:59:49] <X Chain> snow/engine/common/queue/jobs.go#171: executed 55 operations
INFO [02-09|00:59:49] <X Chain> snow/engine/avalanche/bootstrap/bootstrapper.go#484: executing vertex state transitions...
INFO [02-09|00:59:49] <X Chain> snow/engine/common/queue/jobs.go#171: executed 55 operations
INFO [02-09|01:00:07] <C Chain> snow/engine/snowman/bootstrap/bootstrapper.go#406: bootstrapping fetched 1241 blocks. Executing state transitions...

At this point, the node will go into bootstrapping and (once bootstrapping completes) resume consensus and operate as normal.

Disk Space Considerations

To ensure the node does not enter an inconsistent state, the bloom filter used for pruning is persisted to offline-pruning-data-directory for the duration of the operation. This directory should have offline-pruning-bloom-filter-size available in disk space (default 512 MB).

The underlying database (leveldb) uses deletion markers (tombstones) to identify newly deleted keys. These markers are temporarily persisted to disk until they are removed during a process known as compaction. This will lead to an increase in disk usage during pruning. If your node runs out of disk space during pruning, you may safely restart the pruning operation. This may succeed as restarting the node triggers compaction.

If restarting the pruning operation does not succeed, additional disk space should be provisioned.